Key Laboratory for Advanced Fuel and Propellant of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
采用有机凝胶剂(Gn)和气相二氧化硅(SiO2)分别与HD-01、HD-03、HD-03-I、QC四种纯液体高密度燃料制备了相应的凝胶碳氢燃料，研究了所需凝胶剂Gn和SiO2的最小添加量，测定了凝胶碳氢燃料的密度、黏度、热值等基础物理性质。考察了其热稳定性、离心稳定性、长期存储挥发性等稳定性能，以及流变性能。结果表明，至少添加6% SiO2才能使纯液体高密度燃料形成凝胶碳氢燃料，而Gn最小添加量不大于1%，且Gn对燃料本身的密度和热值几乎没有影响；Gn凝胶碳氢燃料在-40 ℃低温保存、长期室温存储或高速离心后无液体渗出现象；Gn凝胶碳氢燃料的黏度随剪切速率增加而明显下降，接近纯液体燃料黏度；通过扫描电镜发现Gn凝胶剂在燃料中可自组装形成三维纤维网状结构，搅拌或高温(150 ℃)可破坏该结构，静置或降温又可恢复，使得Gn凝胶碳氢燃料具有明显优于SiO2凝胶燃料的流变性和触变性，更利于管道运输和雾化。
Synthesized organic gelling agent (Gn) and gaseous silica (SiO2) were used to prepare corresponding gelled hydrocarbon fuels with four kinds of high density liquid fuels HD-01, HD-03, HD-03-I and QC respectively. The minimum addition amount of gelling agents required was studied.The basic physical propertiessuch as density, viscosity, heat value for Gn and SiO2 gelled fuels were determined. Their thermal stability, centrifugal stability, long-term storage perforemance and other stability properties, as well as rheological properties were also investigated. Results show that at least 6% SiO2 was added to make the liquid fuel form the gelled fuel, while addition amount of Gn required for gelling the fuels is not greater than 1% with little influence on the density and heat value of the fuel itself. No liquid exudation phenomenon happens after Gn galled hydrocarbon fuels are stored at -40 ℃, room temperature or high-speed centrifugation. The viscosity of Gn gelled hydrocarbon fuels decreases significantly with the increasing shear rate, approaching the viscosity of liquid fuel at high shear rate. By scanning electron microscopy,it is found that Gn can be self-assembled to form a three-dimensional fiber network structure in fuel, which can be damaged by stirring or high temperature (150 ℃) and recovered by static or cooling, making the rheological and thixotropic properties of Gn gelled hydrocarbon fuels significantly better than those of SiO2 gelled hydrocarbon fuels and more conducive to pipeline transportation and atomization.
鄂秀天凤,潘伦,张香文.高触变性高密度凝胶碳氢燃料的制备及性能[J].含能材料, 2019, 27(6):501-508. DOI:10.11943/CJEM2018206.
E Xiu-tian-feng, PAN Lun, ZHANG Xiang-wen. Synthesis and Performance of High-density and High-thixotropy Gelled Hydrocarbon Fuels[J]. Chinese Journal of Energetic Materials, 2019, 27(6):501-508. DOI:10.11943/CJEM2018206.