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精制棉成熟度及硝化工艺对高氮量NC硝化均匀性的影响
Effect of Maturity and Nitrification Process of Purified Cotton on the Nitrification Uniformity of Nitrocellulose with High-nitrogen Content
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中文摘要:
      为研究精制棉质量、硝化工艺对高氮量硝化纤维素(NC)硝化均匀性的影响规律, 采用H2SO4-HNO3-H2O体系对不同成熟度的精制棉进行硝化处理, 通过改变硫酸-硝酸比、硝化时间制备了高氮量NC, 利用偏光显微镜测试NC的含氮量及硝化均匀性, 探讨了不同成熟度和硝化工艺对高氮量NC的氮量及硝化均匀性影响规律, 同时将不同均匀性的NC经胶化压制成典型的发射药, 对比了相应药粒侧断面的微观形貌。结果表明, 精制棉成熟度高时, 制备的高氮量NC均匀性优于成熟度低的产品; 硫硝比为2.7时, 制备的NC含氮量高、硝化均匀性较好; 以成熟度大于70%的精制棉为原料, 制备NC的硝化均匀性指标-均方差约2.3; 30~35 min硝化效果最佳, 延长硝化时间对氮量影响不大, 均匀性反而降低。表明, 以成熟度高的精制棉为原料, 通过控制硝化体系中硫硝比和硝化时间, 可得到均匀性较好的NC, 用其压制单基发射药的胶化和压伸成型质量可得到明显改善。
中文关键词: 硝化纤维素  硝化工艺  成熟度  硝化均匀性  发射药
英文摘要:
       To study the influence law of purified cotton quality and nitrification process on the nitrification uniformity of nitrocellulose (NC) with high-nitrogen content, purified cottons with different maturity were nitrified via H2SO4-HNO3-H2O system, and NC with high-nitrogen content was prepared by changing sulfuric acid-nitric acid ratio and nitrification time. The nitrogen content and nitrification uniformity of NC were measured by polarizing microscope. The influence law of different maturity and nitrification processes on the nitrogen content and nitrification uniformity of NC with high-nitrogen content was discussed. At the same time, typical gun propellants were suppressed via. gelatinization of NC with different uniformity, and the microstructure of the lateral cross sections of the corresponding granules was compared. Results show that the nitrification uniformity of NC prepared from purified cottons with high maturity is better than that of low maturity products. NC prepared by low sulfuric acid-nitric acid ratio as 2.7 has higher nitrogen content and better nitrification uniformity. Using purified cotton of maturity as more than 70% as raw material, the nitrification uniformity index-variance of prepared NC is about 2.3. When nitrification time is about 30 mins, the nitrification effect is the best, the prolongation of nitrification time only has a little effect on the nitrogen content, but the uniformity decreases. So through the control of sulfuric acid-nitric acid ratio in the nitrification system and nitrification time, using purified cotton of high maturity as raw material, the NC with better uniformity can be obtained and the gelatinized extrusion molding quality of high-uniformity NC-pressed single-base propellant is significantly improved.
英文关键词: nitrocellulose(NC)  nitrification process  maturity  nitrification uniformity  gun propellants
DOI:10.11943/j.issn.1006-9941.2018.02.001
投稿日期:2017-07-17
最后修改日期:2017-09-20
网络出版日期:2018-02-11
书版出版日期:2018-02-12
基金项目:中国兵器北方化学工业集团公司青年科技创新专项(QKCZ-mp-2015-08)
引用文献:刘燕华,张馨方,李磊,等.精制棉成熟度及硝化工艺对高氮量NC硝化均匀性的影响[J].含能材料,2018,26(2):110~117.LIU Yan-hua,ZHANG Xin-fang,LI Lei,et al. Effect of Maturity and Nitrification Process of Purified Cotton on the Nitrification Uniformity of Nitrocellulose with High-nitrogen Content[J]. Chinese Journal of Energetic Materials(Hanneng Cailiao),2018,26(2):110-117.
作者单位E-mail
刘燕华 北京理工大学材料学院, 北京市纤维素及其衍生材料工程技术研究中心, 北京 100081 liuyanhuale@163.com,shaoziqiang@263.net 
张馨方 北京理工大学材料学院, 北京市纤维素及其衍生材料工程技术研究中心, 北京 100081  
李磊 北京理工大学材料学院, 北京市纤维素及其衍生材料工程技术研究中心, 北京 100081  
李永红 北京理工大学材料学院, 北京市纤维素及其衍生材料工程技术研究中心, 北京 100081  
王文俊 北京理工大学材料学院, 北京市纤维素及其衍生材料工程技术研究中心, 北京 100081  
孙君 辽宁庆阳特种化工有限公司, 辽宁 辽阳111002  
邵自强 北京理工大学材料学院, 北京市纤维素及其衍生材料工程技术研究中心, 北京 100081 shaoziqiang@263.net 
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