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含能材料能量-安全性间矛盾及低感高能材料发展策略
On the Energy & Safety Contradiction of Energetic Materials and the Strategy for Developing Low-sensitive High-energetic Materials
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中文摘要:
      能量与安全性是含能材料最重要的两个性能,但人们通常认为它们二者之间存在不可避免的本质矛盾,即能量-安全性间的矛盾(E& S矛盾): 能量越高,安全性越差。本文结合一些反例,对其进行了探讨,发现这一矛盾并非时时存在: E& S矛盾在分子水平上表现得最为突出,显示出其本质性; 在晶体和混合物水平上,E& S矛盾可以极大程度地缓和。由于含能材料的能量与安全性分别主要决定于其分解的热力学与动力学,因此,E& S矛盾主要是含能材料分解的热力学与动力学间的矛盾。就此,提出了发展低感高能炸药的策略,即可通过提高含能分子的化学储能及分子堆积系数来提高能量; 而通过晶体工程和复合技术分别来改善分子堆积结构和界面结构,以降低外界刺激能量转化为引发含能材料最终分解能量的效率,从而降低感度。
中文关键词: 含能材料  能量-安全性间矛盾(E& S矛盾)  炸药  高能低感
英文摘要:
      Energy and safety are the two most important concerns in the field of energetic materials (EMs). And it is universally believed that there exists an inevitable and inherent contradiction between them: the higher energy goes with the lower safety, i.e., the so-called energy and safety(E& S) contradiction. This article discusses the contradiction in combination with many counterexamples showing that the contradiction is not always the case. It is found that the contradiction is structure-level dependent: only on the level of molecule, the E& S contradiction appears most necessarily and remarkably as an inherent one; while, on the higher levels of crystal and mixture, the E& S contradiction can certainly be alleviated. Moreover, we think that the energy and safety of EMs are originated from a sense of more thermodynamics and a sense of more kinetics of chemical reactions, respectively, and thus the E& S contradiction is a thermodynamic-kinetic one. Accordingly, we stress again a strategy for developing EMs, i.e., the nature of increasing the energy is to increase the chemical energy stored in molecules and to enhance the molecular packing compactness; while, the principle of enhancing safety, or reducing sensitivity, is to make external stimuli more and more insufficient to ignite EMs, through crystal engineering and mixing technologies.
英文关键词: energetic materials  energy and safety(E& S) contradiction  explosives  high energy and low sensitivity
DOI:10.11943/j.issn.1006-9941.2018.01.001
投稿日期:2017-09-06
最后修改日期:2017-10-20
网络出版日期:2018-01-18
书版出版日期:2018-01-25
基金项目:国家自然科学基金NSAF 重点项目(U1530262)和国家自然科学基金面上项目(21673210)
引用文献:张朝阳.含能材料能量-安全性间矛盾及低感高能材料发展策略[J].含能材料,2018,26(1):2~10
作者单位E-mail
张朝阳 中国工程物理研究院化工材料研究所, 四川 绵阳 621999 chaoyangzhang@caep.cn 
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