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  • 1  Review on the Aging of Solid Propellants
    ZHANG Xing-gao ZHANG Wei ZHU Hui WANG Chun-hua
    2008, 16(2):232-237.
    [Abstract](10603) [HTML](314) [PDF 1.25 M](4866) [Cited by](97)
    The progress of the aging of double-base propellant, nitrate ester polyether (NEPE) propellant, hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellants was reviewed. The aging monitoring methods including spectroscopy method and embedded subminiature sensing devices have been used in recent years abroad. Aging under constant strain or stress, interface dewetting, health monitoring system, aging modeling and simulating are the main trend in the future.
    2  The Thermal Decomposition of Ammonium Perchlorate
    LIU Zi-ru YIN Cui-mei KONG Yang-hui ZHAO Feng-qi LUO Yang XIANG Hai
    2000, 8(2):75-79.
    [Abstract](27200) [HTML](571) [PDF 1.13 M](6191) [Cited by](38)
    The thermal decompositions of two kinds of NH4ClO4 (AP) with different grain size were investigated by DTA and TC-FTIR coupling. It is proposed that the decomposition of AP crystal obeys the process of “topochemistry ” and it is explained that there are two steps in the decomposition of the coarse grain size. On the basis of the gaseous products identified by real-time and rapid-scan FTIR and reported results in the literatures, the different mechanisms of the two steps during AP decomposition process are suggested.
    3  Preliminary Research on Damage Enhanced Fragment
    HUANG Heng-jian HUANG Hui YANG Shi-qing YANG Pan ZHANG Tong XI Yan LU Xiao-jun
    2007, 15(6):566-569.
    [Abstract](2105) [HTML](196) [PDF 1.66 M](2927) [Cited by](36)
    Damage enhanced materials were used to improve damage efficiency of fragments antiaircraft weapons. A kind of damage enhanced fragments (DEF) containing Al/PTFE with dimension of Φ10 mm×10 mm was designed and prepared. Damage performance experiments show that damage enhance fragments attack targets not only by kinetic energy,but also by combined damages such as exploding,overpressure, high temperature,and setting fire etc. The results show that the designed damage enhance fragments have remarkably higher damage performances than steel fragments with the same dimensions,and its potential chemical energy is 12.4 times as high as its kinetic energy.
    4  Study of Catalytic Activity of Nanocrystalline Transition Metal Oxides on NH4ClO4
    LUO Yuan-xiang LU Lu-de WANG Xin YANG Xu-jie LIU Xiao-heng
    2002, 10(4):148-152.
    [Abstract](3028) [HTML](421) [PDF 1.12 M](2801) [Cited by](33)
    Catalytic activity of nanocrystalline transition metal oxides on the decomposition of energetic material NH4ClO4 (AP) is investigated by thermal analysis. Results indicated that the nanocrystalline CuO powders have most strongly catalytic activities comparing with other mono-metal oxides. Moreover, the catalytic activities of the nanocrystalline CuO powders on the decomposition of AP have relationship with preparing methods and the microstructure of nanocrystalline CuO powders. Among them, the catalysis of the spherical shape nanocrystal CuO powders with better dispersion on AP decomposition is the strongest, and it can made the higher temperature peak of AP decomposition drop down 93.19 ℃ and made thermal power rise to 1 420 J·g-1 by 590.12 J·g-1. Nanocrystalline Fe2O3 with doping with Cu2+(5%) can greatly enhance its catalytic activity on the decomposition of AP, and it made the higher temperature peak of AP decomposition drop down 78 ℃ by 35 ℃ (continuing dropping 43 ℃), and made thermal power rise to 1 230 J·g-1by 980.50 J·g-1. Compared with mono-metal oxides, some new multi-metal oxides have more strongly catalytic activities. Especially compound 1, it made the higher temperature peak of AP decomposition drop down more 110℃ and made thermal power rise to 1 470 J·g-1.
    5  The Coating and Desensitization of CL-20
    CHEN Lu-ying ZHAO Sheng-xiang YANG Pei-jin HENG Shu-yun LI Wei HUANG Xiao-wu
    2006, 14(3):171-173.
    [Abstract](2466) [HTML](393) [PDF 1.44 M](3186) [Cited by](32)
    The solubility of CL-20 and a number of polymer binders were investigated,and suitable solvents and polymer binders were selected for coating and desensitization of CL-20 with water-suspension coating method. The impact and friction sensitivity test results indicate that the “Estane-G” composite consisting of polymer Estane and graphite,and 20% TATB with small particle size (less than 1 μm) in the compositions is effective on coating and desensitization of CL-20,and the explosion temperature test results indicate that the coating do not affect the thermal sensitivity of CL-20.
    6  The Importance of the Insensitive Munitions
    DONG Hai-shan
    2006, 14(5):321-322.
    [Abstract](2017) [HTML](178) [PDF 900.81 K](3606) [Cited by](32)
    7  Review on 3,4-Bisnitrofurazanfuroxan (DNTF)
    ZHENG Wei WANG Jiang-ning
    2006, 14(6):463-466.
    [Abstract](3888) [HTML](416) [PDF 1.05 M](3995) [Cited by](32)
    3,4-bisnitrofurazanfuroxan (DNTF) is a novel high energy density compound. This paper reviews its physicochemical and thermolysis properties. The physicochemical properties show that synthetical properties of DNTF are superior to that of HMX; The thermolysis properties of DNTF indicate that DNTF good thermal stability, the some common lead salts and cuprum salts can catalyze the thermolysis of DNTF. And some applications of DNTF in the explosive composition, CMDB and related item are also reviewed, and the feasibility of DNTF application in CMDB propellant is analyzed emphatically from the aspect of energy, stability and safety.Some problems of DNTF-CMDB propellant are pointed out.
    8  Review on High-Nitrogen Energetic Materials
    ZHOU Yang LONG Xin-ping WANG Xin SHU Yuan-jie TIAN An-min
    2006, 14(4):315.
    [Abstract](2974) [HTML](395) [PDF 1.37 M](2852) [Cited by](31)
    The developments and application of high-nitrogen energetic materials are reviewed. The experimental and theoretical research progresses of azine,azido and tetrazole compounds are introduced. The physical and chemical properties of some high-nitrogen compounds which are the potential candidates as high-energy density materials are evaluated. The advantages and disadvantages of the units composing of high-nitrogen compounds are compared and may provide some useful suggestions for molecular design.
    9  Synthesis Status of Furazano Energetic Derivatives
    LI Zhan-xiong TANG Song-qing OU Yü-xiang CHEN Bo-ren
    2002, 10(2):59-65.
    [Abstract](14397) [HTML](548) [PDF 1.20 M](4171) [Cited by](30)
    In this paper, the synthesis and properties of furazano energetic compounds were discussed from the raw materials—3,4-diaminofurazan (DAF) to chained and macrocyclic furazano derivatives.
    10  Progress on the Synthesis and Application of High-density Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels
    ZOU Ji-Jun ZHANG Xiang-wen WANG Li MI Zhen-tao
    2007, 15(4):411-415.
    [Abstract](2493) [HTML](214) [PDF 1.23 M](4062) [Cited by](30)
    High-density liquid hydrocarbon fuels are important propellants for aircrafts. Recent progress in the synthesis of high-density liquid hydrocarbon fuels and their applications are summarized. The feedstock, synthesis route, property, and cost of fuels under utilization or development are introduced. Molecular design, shape-selective syntheses, and blending technology, are suggested as key points of future work.
    11  The Development and Countermeasure of High Energy Density Materials
    2004, 12(Z1):1-12.
    [Abstract](422) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0) [Cited by](30)
    12  Study on Synthesis and Main Properties of BNCP
    SHENG Di-lun MA Feng-e SUN Fei-long Lü Qiao-li
    2000, 8(3):100-103.
    [Abstract](14755) [HTML](597) [PDF 1002.36 K](5366) [Cited by](28)
    A method is introduced to synthesize a new primary explosive—tetraamminebis (5-nitrotetrazolato) cobalt (Ⅲ) perchlorate (BNCP). Its structure is identifed and some properties are determined.
    13  Progress in High-nitrogen Energetic Materials Derived from Tetrazine and Tetrazole
    YANG Shi-qing YUE Shou-ti
    2003, 11(4):231-235.
    [Abstract](14685) [HTML](309) [PDF 1.20 M](7292) [Cited by](28)
    The research developments of high-nitrogen energetic materials are reviewed. The synthesis and properties of some new compounds derivated from tetrazole and tetrazine,especially 3,6-dihydrazino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine(DHT),3,3′-azobis(6-amino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine)(DAAT),3,6-bis (1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-yl-amino) -1,2,4,5-tetrazine(BTATz) and 5,5′-bitetrazole(BHT) are discussed. Because of their much more positive heats of formation and higher density,these high-nitrogen compounds are unique in their gas generating ability with a little or without smoke and produced residue. They may have a great future for applications in insensitive explosives,low signature propellants,gas generants and low-smoke pyrotechnics.
    14  The Influence of Aluminum Power on Explosive Performance
    YIN Hai-quan PAN Qing ZHANG Jian-liang WANG Guo-zhu YANG Qian-sheng
    2004, 12(5):318.
    [Abstract](3841) [HTML](280) [PDF 910.85 K](4041) [Cited by](28)
    The influence of aluminum powder on explosion heat,metal accelerating ability,overpressure and impulse,and DDT (delflagration to detonation transition) properties is reviewed.
    15  Effect of Thermal Cycling Test on the Properties of TATB Based PBX
    LI Jing-ming WEN Mao-ping HUANG Yi-min
    2005, 13(4):208-210.
    [Abstract](2052) [HTML](360) [PDF 1.13 M](2470) [Cited by](28)
    Thermal cycling tests of TATB based polymer bonded explosives (PBX) samples are undertaken at the scope from -40~75℃. Their dimensions, mechanical properties and detonation performance are also tested before and after the thermal cycling test. The results show that the dimension of TATB based PBX increases with the increasing of cycle number, but the rate of dimension-growth reduces obviously. Because of the surface de-bonding during the thermal cycling test, its modulus, strength and creep properties decrease a little after thermal cycling test. Owing to the void growth during the thermal cycling test, its shock sensitivity increases, but its detonation velocity keeps no change.
    16  Discussion on Limitations of the Arrhenius Methodology
    GAO Da-yuan HE Bi HE Song-wei DONG Hai-shan LI Jing-ming
    2006, 14(2):132-135.
    [Abstract](2127) [HTML](196) [PDF 1.04 M](5041) [Cited by](28)
    The application and suitable range of Arrhenius equation are discussed. The applicability of Arrhenius means in heterogeneous non-constant temperature system, thermal analysis and storage research of explosives are shown. The results show that the assumption that activation energy E and pre-exponential factor A change with temperature is approximate. If A and E don′t change seriously during the experimental temperature range, Arrhenius equation can be used. But it should be corrected if it′s used for extrapolation purpose. Moreover,corrected Arrhenius equation has different activation energy E and pre-exponential factor A at different temperature range. It was extrapolated by Bruceton manometer test results that the storage life of GI-920 explosive was 126.95 d,353.62 d,623.46 d and 1143.77 d respectively based on the decomposition extent of 1% at 90 ℃,80 ℃,70 ℃ and 60 ℃.
    17  Curing Kinetics of HTPB/TDI/Al System by Non-isothermal DSC
    LIU Jing-ru LUO Yun-jun
    2009, 17(1):83-86.
    [Abstract](3459) [HTML](216) [PDF 774.58 K](3595) [Cited by](28)
    Curing processes of HTPB/TDI and Al/HTPB/TDI composites were measured by non-isothermal differential heating calorimetry at different scanning rates. Results show that the values of apparent activation energy,reaction order and frequency factor of HTPB/TDI system are 51.826 kJ·mol-1,0.926,2.412×105 min-1,respectively. After adding aluminum powder,the peak temperature of the curing process is decreased. The values of apparent activation energy,reaction order and frequency factor are increased to be 76.402 kJ·mol-1,0.944,2.53×108 min-1,respectively. The curing reaction mechanism of HTPB/TDI meets Avrami-Erofeev Equation G(α)=[-ln(1-α)]n. The addition of aluminum powder into HTPB/TDI curing system only makes little change on index n. The curing reaction of HTPB/TDI can be accelerated by aluminum powder for the initial 18% of reaction extent and aluminum powder slows down the curing reaction for the latter 82% of reaction extent.
    18  Cook-off Test of DNAN Explosive
    WANG Hong-xing WANG Xiao-feng LUO Yi-ming JIANG Fang-fang
    2009, 17(2):183-186. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9941.2009.02.013
    [Abstract](3825) [HTML](227) [PDF 856.62 K](3554) [Cited by](28)
    The thermal safety of 2,4-dinitroanisole(DNAN) explosive was studied by cook-off test. The self-ignition temperature,the delay time of thermal explosion and the critical temperature for the thermal explosion of DNAN were obtained,and the test results were compared with that of TNT. The results show that the self-ignition temperature of DNAN is 346.7 ℃,the temperature of 5 s explosion point is 374.1 ℃, and activation energy is 48.37 kJ·mol-1. Under the ambient temperature of 220 ℃,when DNAN is placed for 48 h, DNAN is nonflammable. DNAN is semi-burned under the ambient temperature of 230 ℃. When the temperature reaches above 240 ℃, thermal decomposition reaction of DNAN occurs. The delay time of thermal explosion was obtained from theoretical calculation at 100 ℃. Results show that DNAN is stable and safe in the melting process of temperature below 100 ℃.
    19  Preparation of RDX/Resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) Nano-composite Energetic Materials by Sol-Gel Method
    GUO Qiu-xia NIE Fu-de YANG Guang-cheng LI Jin-shan CHU Shi-jin
    2006, 14(4):268-271.
    [Abstract](4008) [HTML](262) [PDF 1.52 M](3791) [Cited by](27)
    Nano-composite energetic materials,hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine/resorcinol-formaldehyde (RDX/RF) aerogel,was prepared by crystallization of RDX in the N,N-dimethyllformamide (DMF) within the nano-dimensional pores of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel matrix. The structures of RDX/RF aerogel were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),X-ray powder diffraction (XRD),and BET method. Experimental results show that the grid size formed by RF ranges from several to several decade nm and the mean size of nano-RDX in RDX/RF is 38 nm. The specific surface area for RF aerogel is 551.5 m2·g-1,and for RDX/RF aerogel is 142.7 m2·g-1. Compared to the corresponding values of the mechanical mixtures with the same components,the exothermic peak of RDX/RF aerogel moves down about 25 ℃,and the mechanical sensitivity decreases a little.
    20  Review on Melt-Castable Explosives Based on 2,4-Dinitroanisole
    ZHANG Guang-quan DONG Hai-shan
    2010, 18(5):604-609. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9941.2010.05.027
    [Abstract](7769) [HTML](213) [PDF 1.17 M](4839) [Cited by](27)
    2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) is a promising alternative that possesses suitable melt point and adequate properties,may enable the development of a new class of low sensitivity melt-cast formulations for use in IM by virtue of reduced sensitivity. Synthesis and properties of DNAN including thermal characteristic and compatibility with relevant materials were overviewed. As a key ingredient in low sensitivity melt-castable explosives,DNAN-based formulations were also reviewed.

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