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  • 1  The Thermal Decomposition of Ammonium Perchlorate
    LIU Zi-ru YIN Cui-mei KONG Yang-hui ZHAO Feng-qi LUO Yang XIANG Hai
    2000, 8(2):75-79.
    [Abstract](27200) [HTML](571) [PDF 1.13 M](6191)
    The thermal decompositions of two kinds of NH4ClO4 (AP) with different grain size were investigated by DTA and TC-FTIR coupling. It is proposed that the decomposition of AP crystal obeys the process of “topochemistry ” and it is explained that there are two steps in the decomposition of the coarse grain size. On the basis of the gaseous products identified by real-time and rapid-scan FTIR and reported results in the literatures, the different mechanisms of the two steps during AP decomposition process are suggested.
    2  Study on Synthesis and Main Properties of BNCP
    SHENG Di-lun MA Feng-e SUN Fei-long Lü Qiao-li
    2000, 8(3):100-103.
    [Abstract](14755) [HTML](597) [PDF 1002.36 K](5366)
    A method is introduced to synthesize a new primary explosive—tetraamminebis (5-nitrotetrazolato) cobalt (Ⅲ) perchlorate (BNCP). Its structure is identifed and some properties are determined.
    3  Progress in High-nitrogen Energetic Materials Derived from Tetrazine and Tetrazole
    YANG Shi-qing YUE Shou-ti
    2003, 11(4):231-235.
    [Abstract](14685) [HTML](309) [PDF 1.20 M](7292)
    The research developments of high-nitrogen energetic materials are reviewed. The synthesis and properties of some new compounds derivated from tetrazole and tetrazine,especially 3,6-dihydrazino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine(DHT),3,3′-azobis(6-amino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine)(DAAT),3,6-bis (1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-yl-amino) -1,2,4,5-tetrazine(BTATz) and 5,5′-bitetrazole(BHT) are discussed. Because of their much more positive heats of formation and higher density,these high-nitrogen compounds are unique in their gas generating ability with a little or without smoke and produced residue. They may have a great future for applications in insensitive explosives,low signature propellants,gas generants and low-smoke pyrotechnics.
    4  Synthesis Status of Furazano Energetic Derivatives
    LI Zhan-xiong TANG Song-qing OU Yü-xiang CHEN Bo-ren
    2002, 10(2):59-65.
    [Abstract](14397) [HTML](548) [PDF 1.20 M](4171)
    In this paper, the synthesis and properties of furazano energetic compounds were discussed from the raw materials—3,4-diaminofurazan (DAF) to chained and macrocyclic furazano derivatives.
    5  Study on the Surface Energies of TATB,HMX and Fluor-polymers
    SONG Hua-jie DONG Hai-shan HAO Ying
    2000, 8(3):104-107.
    [Abstract](14208) [HTML](537) [PDF 1015.52 K](3861)
    On the basis of contact angle experiments, surface energies of TATB,HMX and four fluor-polymers were calculated by geometric equation,harmonic equation and Young-Good-Girifalco-Fowkes (YGGF) equation respectively. The values of surface energies obtained by YGGF equation are more credible than those obtained by the others. The calculated interfacial energies between TATB and fluor-polymers show that the latent Van der waal′s interaction between F2314 and TATB is the most powerful.
    6  Nanoscale Diamond Synthesized by Explosive Detonation
    JIN Zeng-shou XU Kang
    1999, 7(1):38-44.
    [Abstract](11379) [HTML](599) [PDF 1.50 M](4639)
    Preparation methods and properties of nanoscale diamond synthesized by explosive detonation and the influences of different preparation and aftertreatment conditions on the results and properties are reviewed. Some known and future applications of this kind of diamond powders are also discussed. It is suggested that,control of preparation conditions could improve the properties of products,which could be suitable to the requirements in different applications.
    7  X-ray Diffraction Study of Single-base Propellant Ageing
    Radi Ganev Ivan Glavchev
    2001, 9(1):28-30.
    [Abstract](11295) [HTML](486) [PDF 820.08 K](10310)
    Ageing of single-base propellants, extending over a storage period of more than 50 years, was investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. X-ray degree of crystallinity and interplanar spacing were determined. Analysed was the effect of nitrogen content, degree of substitution ( DOS) and diphenylamine ( DPA) content on structural changes in propellants.
    8  Review on the Aging of Solid Propellants
    ZHANG Xing-gao ZHANG Wei ZHU Hui WANG Chun-hua
    2008, 16(2):232-237.
    [Abstract](10603) [HTML](314) [PDF 1.25 M](4866)
    The progress of the aging of double-base propellant, nitrate ester polyether (NEPE) propellant, hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellants was reviewed. The aging monitoring methods including spectroscopy method and embedded subminiature sensing devices have been used in recent years abroad. Aging under constant strain or stress, interface dewetting, health monitoring system, aging modeling and simulating are the main trend in the future.
    9  Recent Advances in Energetic Molecule Synthesis
    TIAN Jun-jun ZHANG Qing-hua LI Jin-shan
    2016, 24(1):1-9. DOI: 10.11943/j.issn.1006-9941.2016.01.001
    [Abstract](9020) [HTML](125) [PDF 1.98 M](3345)
    The latest advances focusing on synthesis of new energetic molecules in past two years have been reviewed from different viewing angle including molecule design, synthetic strategy, reaction pathway optimization, and performance evaluation, etc.This review sorts out the research and development trend in synthesis area of energetic materials(e.g., energetic salts and neutral energetic molecules), and points out promising research directions, including(1) typical strategies including C-or N-nitroamine, N—OH, and gem-dinitro functionalizations will be the most efficient way to synthesize nitrogen-rich energetic salts with desired energy level and sensitivity; (2) more attention should be paid to design and synthesis of high-nitrogen explosive molecules with fused ring, conjugated π structure and bridged frameworks; (3) researches on boron-based explosives have been undervalued and may become the research frontier in the near future; (4) synthetic technologies under extreme conditions such as cryogenic synthesis and supercritical synthesis should be applied to the fields of new energetic materials with improved properties.
    10  Preparation and Characterization of TNT/TNCB Cocrystal Explosive
    MA Yuan HUANG Qi LI Hong-zhen TAN Bi-sheng LIU Yu-cun YANG Zong-wei
    2017, 25(1):86-88. DOI: 10.11943/j.issn.1006-9941.2017.01.014
    [Abstract](8517) [HTML](179) [PDF 1.14 M](6828)
    2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene/2, 4, 6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNT/TNCB) cocrystal explosive was prepared by cocrystallization in solution, and its crystal structure was characterized by single crystal X-ray. Results show that the crystal crystallizes is in monoclinic system, space groupP21/c with crystal parameters of a=2.1148(5) nm, b=0.60974(14) nm, c=1.4968(4) nm, α=90°, β=110.374(4)°, γ=90°, V=1.8093(7) nm3, Z=4. The thermal property and impact sensitivity of the product were measured by differential scanning calorimetry and sensitivity test, respectively. Results reveal that the melting point of TNT/TNCB cocrystal explosive is 72.7 ℃ and theH50 of the cocrystal is 92.9 cm, which are lower than those of TNT and TNCB. Furthermore, the detonation velocity and pressure of TNT/TNCB cocrystal explosive were also calculated to be 7508 m·s-1 and 24.52 GPa by density functional theory (DFT) and Kamlet-Jacobs equation.
    11  Advances in Design and Research of Composite Explosives
    YANG Zhi-jian LIU Xiao-bo HE Guan-song LI Yu-bin NIE Fu-de
    2017, 25(1):2-11. DOI: 10.11943/j.issn.1006-9941.2017.01.001
    [Abstract](8491) [HTML](111) [PDF 1.87 M](7098)
    Composite explosives are the final energy source of energetic materials in realizing damage effect of weapons. In this paper, we briefly reviewed the recent advances and development trends in research of composite explosives, the advances of composite explosives aimed at higher energy are elaborated by the application of novel high explosives, energetic binders and plasticizers, and highly active metals, and then those formulations aimed at low sensitivity are introduced by the application of energetic materials inherent with low sensitivity, efficient desensitization technology, materials and microstructures for the resistance of stress and thermal environment. The composition, characteristics and application of typical explosive formulations are summarized based on different functions design. Finally, we proposed that the development directions of composite explosives in the future are pursuing higher energy, to be more insensitive, enhanced environmental adaptability, green explosives and improved theoretical design.
    12  Synthesis and Properties of Energetic Oxidizer N-oxides 3,3′-azo-bis(6-amino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine)
    LUO Yi-fen ZHOU Qun WANG Bo-zhou LI Hui ZHOU Cheng LI Ji-zhen FAN Xue-zhong
    2014, 22(1):7-11. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9941.2014.01.002
    [Abstract](8452) [HTML](97) [PDF 565.67 K](3924)
    A high energetic oxidizer N-oxides of 3, 3′-azo-bis(6-amino-1, 2, 4, 5-tetrazine)(DAATO3.5) was synthesized via the two-step oxidation reactions of potassium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide/trifluoroacetic anhydride, using 3, 6-diamino-1, 2, 4, 5-tetrazine as starting material. The total yield of DAATO3.5 was 53.1%. Its structure was characterized by FT-IR, NMR and elemental analysis. The reaction mechanism for H2O2/ (CF3CO)2O oxidation was studied. The optimum conditions of the reaction were determined as: 3, 3′-azo-bis(6-amino-1, 2, 4, 5-tetrazine)(DAAT)/(CF3CO)2O/H2O2=1/12.5/11 (molar ratio), reaction time, 20 h and reaction temperature, 20~25 ℃. The thermal behavior of DAATO3.5 was studied by DSC and TG-DTG. Results show that DAATO3.5 has an exothermic decomposition peak at 254.6 ℃, indicating a better stability. The main properties of DAATO3.5 was tested and followed as: density 1.840 g·cm-3, friction sensitivity 100%(90°), impact sensitivity 100%(10 kg, 25 cm).
    13  Synthesis and Hydrolysis Kinetics of a Five-membered Heterocyclic Borate Ester
    YU Hai-jiang MA Jun GAO Deng-pan ZHENG Bao-hui YANG Pan
    2014, 22(1):1-6. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9941.2014.01.001
    [Abstract](8289) [HTML](112) [PDF 545.92 K](6293)
    A borate ester bonding agent with a five-membered ring was synthesized via a "one-pot" process using borate acid, ethylene glycol and 1, 2, 4-butanetriol as raw materials. Its structure was characterized by FTIR, 11B NMR, 1H NMR and MS. The hydrolysis reaction kinetics of the synthesized borate ester in normal temperature water and in saturated water vapor was investigated by an on-line IR analysis method. The hydrolysis reaction kinetic model was established. The results show that the hydrolysis of the synthesized borate ester under above-mentioned two conditions is the pseudo-first order reaction. The reaction rate constant and half life of the borate ester are 2.3×10-5 s-1 and 8.4 h in normal temperature water, 2.96×10-7 s-1 and 27 d in saturated water vapor, respectively. The addition of 0.2% borate ester makes the tensile strength of RDX/HTPB explosive increase from 0.80 MPa to 1.44 MPa and the compressive strength increase from 5.04 MPa to 13.27 MPa, proving that the synthesized borate ester has good bonding effect.
    14  A New Sensitivity Criterion of Explosives: Bonding & Nonbonding Coupling Related Molecular Rigidity and Flexibility
    TAN Bi-sheng HUANG Ming LI Jin-shan LONG Xin-ping
    2016, 24(1):10-18. DOI: 10.11943/j.issn.1006-9941.2016.01.002
    [Abstract](8269) [HTML](123) [PDF 2.70 M](3777)
    Four sensitivity criteria of explosives, including the most likely transition method(the minimum energy gaps), the minimum bond orders, the weakest bond dissociation energies, Mulliken charges of nitro groups of X—NO2(X=C, N or O), were reviewed.A new sensitivity criterion, named as "bonding & nonbonding coupling related molecular rigidity and flexibility" based on the global stability of an explosive, was proposed for the first time.The correlations between the impact sensitivities and the criteria of 11 typical explosives:1, 3, 5-trinitrobenzene(TNB), 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene(TNT), 1, 3, 3-trinitroazetidine(TNAZ), 1, 3, 5-trinitro-1, 3, 5-triazacyclohexane(RDX), 1, 3, 5-trinitro -2-oxo-1, 3, 5-triazacyclohexane(K6), 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12-hexanitro-2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12-hexaazaisowurtzitane(CL-20), 2-picryl-1, 2, 3-triazole(PCTA), 4-nitro-22-picryl-1, 2, 3-triazole(NPCTA), (2, 6-diamino-3, 5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide(LLM-105), 4, 6-dinitrobenzofuroxan(DNBF) and 5, 7-diamino-4, 6-dinitrobenzofuoxan(DADNBF) were compared. Results show that in the five kinds of sensitivity criteria, the correlation of the "bonding & nonbonding coupling related molecular rigidity and flexibility" evaluation method is the highest.The combination of these criteria can improve the ability to predict sensitivity.Strain energy is a form of the bonding & nonbonding coupling energy in explosive molecules, which not only can be used to measure the sensitivity of explosives, especially for the explosives without nitro group, at the same time also can be used to meaure the energy-stored level of an explosive and has important significance for the designs and evaluations of new explosives.
    15  Optimization of Synthesis Process and Structural Characterization of 5-ATN
    WANG Meng-meng DU Zhi-ming ZHAO Zhi-hua HAN Zhi-yue
    2014, 22(1):17-21. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9941.2014.01.004
    [Abstract](8244) [HTML](125) [PDF 598.55 K](6777)
    5-Aminotetrazolium nitrate(5-ATN) was synthesized from 5-aminotetrazole monohydrate(5-AT·H2O) and concentrated nitric acid. The effects of nitric acid dosage, reaction time and reaction temperature on the yield of 5-ATN were discussed. The proper synthesis conditions determined by orthogonal experiments were as follows: 5 g 5-AT, 15 mL nitric acid, reaction temperature 20 ℃ and reaction time 15 min, with the yield of 92.6%. Compared with previous studies, the reaction temperature and reaction time decrease while the yield is improved. SEM picture shows that the surface of 5-ATN is smooth, and hellogh humidity storage tests show that the water absorption of product is reduced.
    16  Preparation and Properties of Ultrafine Potassium Picrate
    ZHAO Wen-yuan CHEN Zhen-kui ZHANG Tong-lai ZHANG Li-nong ZHOU Zun-ning YANG Li
    2016, 24(1):85-90. DOI: 10.11943/j.issn.1006-9941.2016.01.014
    [Abstract](8116) [HTML](137) [PDF 3.23 M](2638)
    To investigate the effect of particle sizes on properties of potassium picrate (KP), superfine potassium picrate was prepared by continuous spray addition, controlling speed dropping method and fast mixing method, respectively.The particle morphology, particle size distribution, thermal decomposition temperature, impact sensitivity, friction sensitivity, flame sensitivity, electrostatic spark sensitivity, 5 s delay explosion temperature and heat-wire sensitivity of potassium picrate with different size were measured.Results show that the values of mean particle size D50 of potassium picrate obtained by continuous spray addition, controlling speed dropping method and fast mixing method are 3.9 μm, 8 μm and 16 μm, respectively.With the increase of potassium picrate particle size, the initial thermal decomposition temperature increases, the impact, friction, and flame sensitivity decrease, the electrostatic spark sensitivity is basically unchanged and 5 s delay explosion temperature decreases.Heat-wire sensitivity of superfine potassium picrate with D50=3.9 μm is very low and it is suitable for used as low sensitivity current igniting composition.
    17  Study on Numerical Simulation of the Self-ignition Operating Process of High-speed Ramjet Kinetic Energy Projectile
    ZOU Yan-bing ZHUO Chang-fei FENG Feng
    2017, 25(1):12-19. DOI: 10.11943/j.issn.1006-9941.2017.01.002
    [Abstract](7802) [HTML](111) [PDF 4.82 M](2782)
    To research the operating characteristics of high-speed ramjet kinetic energy projectile during the process of self-ignition, the process of self-ignition of high-speed ramjet kinetic energy projectile based on the solid fuel of polyethylene was numerically simulated. The ignition delay time in the self-ignition, the change law of flow field in combustor before the blanking cap opening, and the change law of flow field and performance of the entire ramjet after the flame in combustor stabilizing when the blanking cap opening were analyzed. Results show that because of its initial unique structure whose exit of nozzle is blocking, the ignition delay time is short enough, so the self-ignition can be successfully performed. Violent oscillation of pressure is occurred in the combustion chamber before the blanking cap opening, and chemical reaction in the combustion chamber enhances the effects of oscillation. After the blanking cap opening and flame in combustor stabilizing, the high-speed ramjet kinetic energy projectile′s rated thrust is 283 N and its net thrust is 83 N. The specific impulse based on polyethylene is 9129 m·s-1.
    18  Review on Melt-Castable Explosives Based on 2,4-Dinitroanisole
    ZHANG Guang-quan DONG Hai-shan
    2010, 18(5):604-609. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9941.2010.05.027
    [Abstract](7769) [HTML](213) [PDF 1.17 M](4839)
    2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) is a promising alternative that possesses suitable melt point and adequate properties,may enable the development of a new class of low sensitivity melt-cast formulations for use in IM by virtue of reduced sensitivity. Synthesis and properties of DNAN including thermal characteristic and compatibility with relevant materials were overviewed. As a key ingredient in low sensitivity melt-castable explosives,DNAN-based formulations were also reviewed.
    19  On the Energy & Safety Contradiction of Energetic Materials and the Strategy for Developing Low-sensitive High-energetic Materials
    ZHANG Chao-yang
    2018, 26(1):2-10. DOI: 10.11943/j.issn.1006-9941.2018.01.001
    [Abstract](7702) [HTML](167) [PDF 1.97 M](4751)
    Energy and safety are the two most important concerns in the field of energetic materials (EMs). And it is universally believed that there exists an inevitable and inherent contradiction between them: the higher energy goes with the lower safety, i.e., the so-called energy and safety(E& S) contradiction. This article discusses the contradiction in combination with many counterexamples showing that the contradiction is not always the case. It is found that the contradiction is structure-level dependent: only on the level of molecule, the E& S contradiction appears most necessarily and remarkably as an inherent one; while, on the higher levels of crystal and mixture, the E& S contradiction can certainly be alleviated. Moreover, we think that the energy and safety of EMs are originated from a sense of more thermodynamics and a sense of more kinetics of chemical reactions, respectively, and thus the E& S contradiction is a thermodynamic-kinetic one. Accordingly, we stress again a strategy for developing EMs, i.e., the nature of increasing the energy is to increase the chemical energy stored in molecules and to enhance the molecular packing compactness; while, the principle of enhancing safety, or reducing sensitivity, is to make external stimuli more and more insufficient to ignite EMs, through crystal engineering and mixing technologies.
    20  The Compressive Creep Behavior of PBX Based on TATB
    LI Ming WEN Mao-ping HE Qiang PANG Hai-yan JING Shi-ming
    2005, 13(3):150-154.
    [Abstract](7118) [HTML](291) [PDF 1.67 M](3381)
    The compressive creep behavior of PBX based on TATB was investigated. Experiments were taken at different temperatures to identify the strong temperature dependence of the mechanical properties. An obvious temperature transition range related to the jumping of mechanical behavior,i.e. from 40 ℃ to 60 ℃,was obtained. It was proper to choose 55 ℃ as reference temperature for master curve of creep compliance function. The shift factor (aT) was obtained with the curve transforming and used to calculate the two coefficients of WLF equation. Prony series with seven terms are proved to be good fitting for the creep compliance master curve.

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